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نسخه کامل مشاهده نسخه کامل : کلکسیون دوربین های مورد استفاده در نقشه برداری




    

Sharim
04-04-2008, 20:23
سلام
سعی میکنم کلیه دوربین هایی که تاکنون برای نقشه برداری مورد استفاده قرار گرفته و میگیره رو این جا قرار بدم در مورد دوربین های جدید تر یک سری توضیحات هم قرار میدم .
نمونه هایی از دوربین های مورد استفاده در نقشه برداری :

تئودولیت : (theodolite)

Model : P30

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Model :P1

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Model : K1-S

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Model : RDH

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Model :N/A

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Sharim
04-04-2008, 20:27
Model : B236

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Model : N/A

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Model : N/A

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Model : T4

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Sharim
04-04-2008, 20:30
Model : N/A

Telescope Length 310 mm, Height 670 mm (height of theodolite + gyroscope

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The instrument pictured above is typically used by the military. Their principal application is in mining, tunnelling and gunnery, but in conventional surface surveys they can be used to provide initial orientation, in place of magnetic bearings or astronomical azimuths.
The instrument shown at the top is referred to as a 'gyro-theodolite'. It basically consists of a gyroscope attached to the bottom of a Hilger & Watts micrometer theodolite. The gyroscope enables the direction of true north to be determined with a standard error of about ±15" within a very short time. The instrument shown on the bottom is a 'meridian indicator' (also known as a Precision Indicator of the Meridian) which is connected to the gyroscope and includes external connection to the power supply. It is basically a meter graduated directly in angular units, and the reading is thus a maximum when the gyro is pointing north and a minimum when it is pointing east or west.
The theodolite remains permanently attached to the gyro assembly. The gyroscope unit is suspended in vertical gimbals, which lie in the line defined by the downward extension of the (permanently) attached theodolite. The actual gyroscope is floated on a film of liquid, and it is called a floating gyroscope to distinguish it from the pendulous type in which the gyroscope unit is suspended and hangs under gravity.

Manufactured in 1966 (approx). Catalogued in 1997

Sharim
04-04-2008, 20:33
Model : Teo 010
Telescope length 135mm, Height 284mm

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Description

The Optical Micrometer Theodolite Theo 010 is suited for all geodetic work and the principal application of the instrument is for triangulations of 2nd to 4th order, precision traversing above and below ground and field astronomical observations.
The instrument is compact and completely self-contained and all it's mechanical and optical elements are conveniently arranged.
The theodolite consists essentially of a fixed base with a rotatable horizontal circle (84 mm diameter) and an upper part, or alidade, which is rotatable on a steel cylindrical spindle and carries the tilting trunnion axis with the vertical circle (60 mm diameter) and telescope, the circle reading microscope and the built-in optical plummet. The centre spindle of the instrument fits into a socket in the tribrach and is secured by the clamp screw (DIN centring system). The tribrach carries the levelling foot screws and is connected to the tripod head through the base plate and the spring plate by the attachment screw. The mirror objective telescope of intrinsic shortness and 31x magnification has internal focusing and is completely dustproof. The effective diameter of the objective lens is 53 mm and the telescopes shortest sighting distance is 2 metres.
The manipulating knobs and clamping levers are so situated that they can be easily operated from either telescope position, and the screw threads are completely enclosed and protected. Built-in to the base of the instrument is an optical plummet with which, sighting through the hollow spindle it is possible to achieve a high degree of centering over ground points.
The horizontal and vertical scale intervals of the micrometer is 1". The altitude bubble sensitivity is 20"/2mm. The circles have double line graduations, the actual division being between the two lines. By turning the micrometer head, the circles apparently move in opposite directions until the upper and lower double lines are made to coincide. The shifting of the images, in minutes and seconds, is shown in a small window on the right hand side of the microscope field. The scale divisions of both the horizontal and vertical circles are in intervals of 20 minutes.

Weight of instrument is 5.3 kg
There is only one mirror used for both the horizontal and vertical circle illumination
Inverted telescope image
School store no: T63
Purchased by UNSW in 1963. Catalogued in 2000

Sharim
04-04-2008, 20:38
Model : T16

Telescope length 150 mm, Height 255 mm
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This is the Wild T16 (E) optical scale-reading theodolite. Instead of a micrometer, it features a scale microscope where the images of the vertical circle and the horizontal circle are seen in the field of view at the same time. The theodolite is ideal for triangulation, traversing, cadastral surveys, setting-out and alignment surveys, determining control points and trigonometric heighting.
The instrument incorporates a detachable tribrach which is designed for fast, accurate interchange of the theodolite against a reflector, target, optical plummet, etc. A central-pivot locking mechanism engages the three studs of the centring flange without lateral pressure and holds the instrument firmly in the tribrach dish. An optical plummet is included on the alidade of the theodolite.
The graduation interval of the horizontal and vertical circles is 1 degree, the optical scale interval is 1 minute (1') and estimation can be made to 6". The reading microscope is parallel to the telescope and both circles are easy to read, whatever the telescope position. To prevent mistakes, the horizontal circle is a brilliant yellow, and a large scale mirror in the telescope standard ensures bright circle illumination. The magnification of the telescope is 28x, the diameter of the objective lens of the telescope is 40 mm, and the shortest pointing distance is approximately 1.5 metres. The telescope provides an 'inverted' image. The bubble sensitivity of the plate level is 30" per 2 mm run.
Furthermore, the T16 is supplied in a watertight, dustproof metal case with a carrying strap, and the steel hood protects the instrument from jolts and knocks.

Weight of instrument and container is 4.7 kg and 2.0 kg respectively.
Inverted telescope image
Thanks to J. Dedual for the year of manufacture
School store no: T143
Manufactured in 1962. Catalogued in 2000 & 2005

Sharim
10-04-2008, 10:31
Model : DKM2-AEM

Telescope length 175 mm, Height 225 mm
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This Kern DKM2-AEM is a one-second (1") optical micrometer theodolite of high precision suitable for triangulation, traversing, deformation measurements, precise layout work in building construction and sub-surface work, astronomical observations, optical tooling and photogrammetric control.
It incorporates a trunnion axis micrometer which serves the same purposes as a striding level (also included in the collection), and is used to increase the accuracy and reliability of the horizontal directions at steep sights. The trunnion axis micrometer permits to measure the inclination component of the standards in the direction of the trunnion axis. From these measurements the inclination of the trunnion axis and the correction of the horizontal direction can be computed. The practical measuring range of the trunnion axis micrometer is approximately ±30" and the inclination of the trunnion axis can be determined to ±1".
The magnification of the telescope is 32x, the diameter of the objective lens of the telescope is 45 mm, and the shortest pointing distance is approximately 1.7 metres. Other features include maintenance-free vertical circle liquid compensator (working accuracy of 0.3" and range of 2'), upright telescope image, digitised circle reading, optical plummet with adjustable focus, two-speed (course and fine) azimuth and elevation tangent screws, cam controlled short-stroke levelling system and course-fine circle orienting drive.
The accuracy of the instrument is excellent since the scale interval of the micrometer is 1" and estimation can be made to 0.2". The diameters of the horizontal and vertical circles are 75 mm and 69 mm respectively, and one mirror caters for the illumination of both circles. The sensitivity of the plate level is 22" per 2 mm.
The instrument requires special 'Kern' centring tripods and is not compatible with any other brands. Centring with the tripod produces an accuracy of 0.5-1mm. The theodolite is provided with a metal carrying case, and the tool compartment in the base of the carrying case contains a hexagonal wrench with screwdriver, one adjusting pin and two Allen wrenches (1.5 mm) for the adjustment of the collimation error.

The instrument can be combined with the Kern DM 501 Electronic Distance Meter (also included in the collection)
Weight of instrument and container is 6.2 kg and 2.4 kg respectively.
Upright telescope image
School store no: T144
Some comments are courtesy of the Kern Collection of the Aarau City Museum, Switzerland

Catalogued in 2000

Sharim
10-04-2008, 10:33
Model : zeiss Th2
Telescope length 155 mm, Height 315 mm
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This Zeiss Th 2 one-second optical micrometer theodolite is a highly accurate instrument featuring the unique "ball-and-socket" levelling system. Fields of application include precise angular measurement for traversing, first and second-order triangulations, plumbing, distance measurement with subtense bar and establishing astronomical positions.
Some of the features of the theodolite include:- combined coarse-fine focusing drives, coaxial clamps and fine drives, automatic vertical circle indexing system featuring an X-type pendulum compensator, erect telescope image, convenient carrying handle, optical plummet in alidade and a sighting collimator for rapid and convenient course sighting. The instrument also features a switch which is used for switching between the horizontal (yellow display) and the vertical (white display) micrometer images.
The most important feature of the instrument however, is far-reaching digitisation. Of the 7 figures making up one reading, 6 appear directly in digital form, thus eliminating counting or estimation. The seventh digit is, in addition, presented by a full interval per 1".
The graduation interval for angular measurement is 20' and the micrometer interval is 1". The diameters of the horizontal and vertical circles are 100 mm and 85 mm respectively, and one mirror caters for the illumination of both circles. The sensitivity of the plate level is 20" per 2 mm and the setting accuracy of the compensator is approximately ±0.2". The magnification of the telescope is 30x, the diameter of the objective lens of the telescope is 40 mm, and the shortest pointing distance is approximately 1.6 metres.
The instrument's plastic case is fitted with a number of extra accessories including a plumb bob, a sunshade, an objective tube and a toolkit containing screwdrivers, wrenches and two adjusting pins
The "ball-and-socket" levelling system is also incorporated in the Zeiss Th 4 theodolite (included in collection)
Weight of instrument and container is 5.2 kg and 4.8 kg respectively.
Upright telescope image
School store no: T95

Catalogued in 2000

Sharim
10-04-2008, 10:35
Model : zeiss Th4

Telescope length 150 mm, Height 270 mm
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This Zeiss Th 4 optical scale-reading theodolite of medium accuracy was developed as a modern instrument with a reading microscope for the multitude of applications requiring optical setting-out, alignment, measuring of vertical and horizontal angles or distance stadia measurement. It is therefore suited for building-site surveys, lot surveys in cadastral and urban surveying, low-order triangulation, ground-control work, trigonometric levelling, topographical tacheometry and traverse surveys for cadastre, reallotment or mining.
This instrument, as with the Zeiss Th 2, also features the "ball-and-socket" levelling system. Some other features of the theodolite include: optical plummet built into the alidade, combined coarse-fine focusing drives, automatic vertical circle indexing system featuring a V-type compensator, inverted telescope image and a sighting collimator for rapid and convenient coarse pointing.
Simultaneous viewing of the horizontal and vertical circles eliminates the need for changing over between readings. Also, the graduation images of the horizontal and vertical circles are colour coded for easy differentiation (blue for vertical and yellow for horizontal).
The graduation interval of the horizontal and vertical circles is 1 degree, the optical scale interval is 1 minute (1') and estimation can be made to 6". The diameters of the horizontal and vertical circles are 98 mm and 85 mm respectively. The sensitivity of the plate level is 30" per 2 mm and the setting accuracy of the compensator is approximately ±1". The magnification of the telescope is 25x, the diameter of the objective lens of the telescope is 35 mm, and the shortest pointing distance is approximately 1.2 metres.
The instrument's plastic case is fitted with a number of accessories including a plumb bob and a cylinder telescopic attachment for glare reduction.
The "ball-and-socket" levelling system is also incorporated in the Zeiss Th 2 theodolite (Cat. No. 0227 in collection). Weight of instrument and container is 4.5 kg and 3.0 kg respectively. Inverted telescope image.
Includes Zeiss S22 wooden telescvopic tripod (150 x 150 x 1150 mm when folded).


Catalogued in 2004

Sharim
10-04-2008, 10:37
Model : T0

Telescope length 135 mm, Height 220 mm
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This Wild T0 compass theodolite is a compact lightweight instrument, which can be used either for observing and setting-out magnetic bearings or as a normal theodolite for measuring or turning-off angles. It is particularly useful for rapid traversing, based on magnetic bearings, especially in areas where visibility is limited and the traverse legs likely to be short. The T0 can also be used for photogrammetric ground control surveys, low-order detailing, on building sites or as a reconnaissance instrument.
The freely-swinging compass circle is oriented to magnetic north by means of its rigid attachment to a north-seeking needle, which rests on a pivot at the centre of the instrument. The theodolite has a lever which has to be moved to lower the compass circle on to its pivot.
The horizontal (compass) circle consists of a metal circle with a diameter of 68 mm. The method of reading the horizontal circle, which is graduated and numbered in 2º intervals, is the same as with the Wild T2. Using the micrometer, readings of the horizontal circle are made directly to 1' and estimated to 30". Horizontal circle readings are of unusually high accuracy for an instrument of this type and size, because of the coincidence setting of the diametrically-opposite parts of the circle.
The vertical circle is made of glass and has a diameter of 46 mm. Once the vertical circle index bubble (altitude bubble) has been centred, the reading of the vertical circle is obtained as the mean of the combined images of the diametrically-opposite parts of the circle, but without a micrometer setting. Therefore, the readings are made directly from the circle to 10' and estimated to 1'.
As a slight inconvenience, however, the horizontal and vertical circles are read separately from two different reading microscopes. The vertical circle is read through the reading microscope situated next to the telescope eyepiece, while the horizontal circle is read through a separate reading microscope located on the left side of the instrument (in FL).
The telescope produces an inverted image. The magnification of the telescope is 20x, the diameter of the objective lens of the telescope is 28 mm, and the shortest pointing distance is approximately 1.4 metres. The sensitivity of the vertical circle index bubble per 2 mm is 1'.

The base plate of metal container is part of instrument.
Weight of instrument and container is 2.9 kg and 0.8 kg respectively.
Inverted telescope image

Catalogued in 2000 & 2005

Sharim
10-04-2008, 10:39
Model: TM3000 D Electronic Theodolite
Telescope length 170 mm, Height 310 mm (without carrying handle)
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This Wild TM3000 D motorised electronic theodolite is an early instrument for automated precision surveys. It is particularly suitable for remote measurement and tasks that call for measurements at regular intervals. Some specific applications of the theodolite include temporary or permanent monitoring of slip-prone areas in the mountains or in opencast mines, directing tunnelling machines, positioning and constructing oil rigs, profiling and observing slip movements in coal mining. The theodolite may be used as an independent instrument or can form part of a system of up to eight stations.
The development of the motorised Wild theodolite is based on the basic Wild T3000 model. The extra letter 'D' at the end of the model number states that an EDM (Electronic Distance Measurement) device may be attached to the top of the theodolite to allow distance measurement.
The specialised targeting procedure enables a reflector point to be targeted with a precision of ±15 mm at a distance of one kilometre, and that within 30 seconds.
The theodolite features a normal telescope producing an erect image, a two-axis liquid level sensor (capable of being switched on/off) with a setting accuracy of 0.1" and an angular positioning accuracy of about 0.5". The maximum speed of rotation of the motorised axial drives (controlled by the joystick or an external personal computer) in both the horizontal and vertical directions is 50º/sec, and the bubble sensitivity of the plate level is 20" per 2 mm.
The time taken for a single measurement (horizontal and vertical) is approximately 0.9 seconds.

Instrument is fairly heavy (weight of theodolite without tribrach is 10.8 kg)
Upright telescope image
School store no: 006670
Switzerland
Catalogued in 2000

Sharim
10-04-2008, 10:43
به لینک زیر هم میتونید سری بزنید :


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Pario
15-04-2008, 11:40
دستت درد نکنه.

Sharim
18-04-2008, 11:30
قابلی نداشت ...
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DISTANCE METER

SHORT-RANGE DISTANCE METER



Kern & Co., Aarau, Switzerland
Model : DM 501
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This Kern DM 501 short-range electro-optical distance meter has the ability to conveniently snap on to the telescope of a Kern theodolite such as the Kern K1-SE

The distance meter slots into holes on the objective side and rests on adjustable screws on the eyepiece side. It is pressed on these screws by springs on the other side. The adjustment of the distance meter's line of sight (to that of the theodolite) was with the aid of these screws, on the eyepiece side.
The EDM consists of two telescopes, a transmitting telescope and a receiving telescope with objective diameters of 28 mm each, and an infrared filter and a diaphragm (for adjustment of the signal strength) is mounted inside the receiver optics. Both telescopes are small enough to still allow the main telescope of the theodolite to rotate a complete revolution about the horizontal (trunnion) axis.
The instrument uses a digital phase measuring method with an infrared 900 nm Ga-As-Diode (Gallium-Arsenide-Diode) as its radiation source. The modulation fine measurement frequency is 15 MHz and the power requirement for distance measurement is 11 Watts. The maximum range of distance measurement for the instrument is approximately 1.0 kilometre using a single prism, and 1.6 kilometres using a triple prism. The standard error of distance measurement is ±(5mm+0.000005D), where D represents the distance measured in kilometres. The instrument also operates in tracking mode, where the slope distance is displayed every 2 seconds.
The power is provided through the wiring for the circle illumination, with the battery attached to the stationary base of the host theodolite. The energy is supplied through slip rings on the axes and contact tongues on the telescope. This means that the theodolite can be used without interference by cables.

Instrument includes a set of 4 reflectors, three of which can be joined together to form a triple reflector (refer to left image)
Also included is a battery power supply set
Weight of instrument is 1.6 kg
Catalogued in 2000

Sharim
18-04-2008, 11:33
MEDIUM-RANGE DISTANCE METER

AGA, Sweden
Model : Geodimeter 14
Length 220mm, Width 190mm, Height 87mm (excluding handle)

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This Geodimeter 14 is a compact and lightweight electro-optical distance measuring instrument intended for distances up to 10,000 metres, and can be mounted on the telescope of most types of theodolites.
The measuring is made by means of infrared invisible light (IR-GaAs light emitting diode) with an effective light wavelength of 0.91 micrometres. To make the target easy to find, the instrument is directed with the aid of an audio-signal and a control instrument with pointer deflection. There is also a mode selector switch with three positions. When maximum accuracy is wanted, a measurement is first made with the switch in position 1 (Ph 1) and then in position 2 (Ph 2), whereafter the mean of the two results is calculated. The expected accuracy when using this type of measurement is ±(5 to 30 mm + 3 ppm). The third position (Auto) is used when the signal conditions are good and when it is important that the measurement can be done quickly. The accuracy of auto measurement is about ±(5 mm + 10 ppm). The measuring time per distance could be close to 15 seconds in 'Auto' mode and about 40 seconds per phase when using the 'Phase' mode.
The distance meter is equipped with a control knob with which the instrument can be adjusted for the greatest possible accuracy for existing measuring conditions. In addition, the atmospheric correction can be determined (based on measured temperature and pressure) with the aid of a correction scale and the correction factor is dialled in on the instrument, so that the display shows the corrected measuring value.
The maximum effective range of the distance meter using one prism, 3 prisms and 16 prisms is 4 kilometres, 6 kilometres and 10 kilometres respectively, during good atmospheric conditions. The diameter of the objective aperture is 60 mm and the shortest measuring distance is 0.2 metres. A 6V battery is required to operate the instrument and its power consumption is approximately 20 Watts

Weight of instrument is 2.5 kg

Sharim
18-04-2008, 11:36
ELECTRONIC TACHEOMETER
Hewlett-Packard (USA)
Model : HP 3820A

Length 239mm, Width 162mm, Height 298mm
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This Hewlett-Packard HP 3820A Electronic Tacheometer is a combination of a digital theodolite for angle measurements, an EDM instrument for distance measurements and a microcomputer for basic survey calculations such as determining height differences and calculating horizontal distances from observed slope distances and zenith angles. The microcomputer also has the responsibility of monitoring the measuring systems and preparing the measured values for display. The measured distances can be displayed in either metres or feet.
The optical system serves as transmission and receiving optic, as well as the aiming telescope. The plate and index levels usually found on theodolites, are replaced by a dual-axis level sensor. This dual-axis level sensor automatically checks for dislevelment of the vertical axis and applies the necessary corrections. The plumbline is given by a mercury horizon, dampened with silicone oil.
The instrument uses a digital phase measuring method with an infra-red 830 nm Ga-Al-As-Diode (Gallium-Aluminium-Arsenide-Diode) as its radiation source. The modulation fine measurement frequency is 15 MHz and the power requirement for distance measurement is 15 Watts. The maximum range of distance measurement for the instrument is approximately 1 kilometre using a single prism, and 5 kilometres using 6 prisms. The standard deviation of distance measurement is ±(5mm+0.000001D), where D represents the distance measured in kilometres.
The magnification of the telescope is 30x, the diameter of the objective lens of the telescope is 66 mm, and the shortest pointing (minimum focusing) distance is approximately 5 metres. The instrument uses the method of electronic 'decoding' for circle reading, and provides horizontal and vertical accuracies of ±2" and ±4" respectively. The measured angles can be displayed in either degrees or grads


This is one of the first instruments with a 'dual-axis' level sensor. Instrument was purchased by the School of Surveying, UNSW, in the late 1970's

Upright telescope image
Weight of instrument is 11 kg
In a hard plastic case

Sharim
18-04-2008, 11:39
SHORT-RANGE DISTANCE METER

Hewlett-Packard (USA)
Model : HP 3800B

Length 330mm, Width 260mm, Height 145mm
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This Hewlett-Packard HP 3800B short-range distance meter is an electro-optical measuring instrument capable of measuring distances up to 3 kilometres using three reflectors (in ideal conditions).
The distance meter itself is supported by a yoke which allows it to rotate either upwards or downwards about the horizontal axis, and it can also be removed from this yoke by unscrewing the holding screw. Similar to a theodolite, the yoke also features vertical and horizontal clamps and tangent screws for accurate pointing of the instrument.
The objective end of the distance meter features the 'transmitter' and 'receiver' lenses. The transmitter lens has a smaller diameter and is positioned inside the receiver lens. The sighting telescope, located on top of the instrument, is used to point the instrument at the reflector. The instrument is pointed at the reflector by sighting through the telescope and adjusting the horizontal and vertical tangent screws until the cross hairs intersect a point approximately 70mm above the reflector. The telescope features internal focusing, stadia cross hairs and 18x magnification.
An external power unit can be attached to the instrument, which operates from an internal 12 volt rechargeable battery good for 8 hours of operation when fully charged. The precision of distance measurement is ±(3mm+0.00001D), where D represents the distance measured in kilometres.
When measuring long distances during poor atmospheric conditions, the measuring time of the distance meter can be as long as 2 minutes. The distance measurement is not fully automatic. The operator has to zero an ammeter at different frequencies
Weight of distance meter is 7.7 kg
Weight of external power unit is 6 kg

Sharim
18-04-2008, 11:41
MICROWAVE DISTANCE METER

Tellurometer, South Africa
Model : MRA 101
Length 381mm, Width 368mm, Height 184mm
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This Tellurometer Model MRA 101 is a long-range microwave distance meter capable of measuring distances up to 50 kilometres. Due to its large parabolic antenna (330 mm in diameter) located on the transmitter end, and a beam width of only 6º, it is particularly useful for accurate short-range urban applications, since the reflections from passing traffic are held to a minimum. Long range performance is also of a high standard and multipath reflections are reduced.
Two identical Tellurometer units are used when measuring a line, with one placed at one end of the line to be measured and the other at the opposite end. These two units are known respectively as the "Master" and the "Remote" units and each one can be switched to operate as either unit.
The instrument uses microwaves (radio waves) of 10 centimetre wave lengths for distance measurement, which is read at the master station, with the read-out being calibrated directly in units of length. The read-out tuning knob is rotated until the pointer on an adjacent meter is brought to its centre-scale position. The actual distance being measured is then read from a circular scale in metres (coarse reading) and, by means of a vernier, in centimetres (fine reading). By operating only one switch and a read-out control, the operator can obtain a distance reading in about a minute. In favourable circumstances, a distance precision of ±(1.5cm+3ppm) can be obtained.
A continuous microwave carrier wave, variable within the frequency range 10.05-10.45 GHz is transmitted by the master instrument and is produced by an electronic component known as a klystron. The average power consumption of the instrument is 3.2A at 12 Volts. It's modulation frequency is 7.5 MHz.
An interesting and highly efficient feature of this Tellurometer is that it incorporates a duplex, frequency modulated speech facility, allowing communication between the two stations simply by flicking a switch labelled "speak" located on the right of the control panel and using the headset provided with the unit.
A glass-fibre carrying case (Length 476mm, Width 406mm, Height 216mm)

Instrument features a 'headset' for communication (pictured in image above)
Weight of instrument is 7.3 kg
Weight of carrying case is 4.1 kg

Sharim
18-04-2008, 11:43
PRECISION DISTANCE METER
Tellurometer, South Africa
Model : MA 100

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This precision electro-optical Tellurometer Model MA 100 is specifically designed for short-range high-accuracy distance measurement. The instrument can be used for precise traversing, constructional surveys, mining surveys, cadastral surveys, control for aerial photography and valuation surveys in urban and semi-urban areas. It is capable of measuring distances up to 3 kilometres or more with an instrumental accuracy of a few millimetres. Meteorological errors will not contribute more than 2 parts per million of the range being measured, hence the overall accuracy can be expected to vary from a few millimetres at short range to about 1 cm at 3 kilometres.
The instrument makes use of phase comparison techniques to determine the distance and the actual phase measurement is performed digitally using a pulse counting system and a clock oscillator. A measuring frequency of about 75 MHz is modulated on to a light source (Gallium Arsenide diode) emitting at near infra-red with wavelengths of 0.92 micrometres and the returned light is detected by a photo diode.
The instrument consists of a magnesium alloy barrel containing the optics, and is mounted on a cast alloy yoke above the instrument body which contains the electronic circuitry, control panel and readout. The optical barrel is completely sealed and has a cartridge of silica gel which provides further protection against possible ingress of moisture. Vertical clamp and tangent screws are mounted in the yoke while the horizontal clamp and tangent screws are an integral part of the azimuth mount assembly below the instrument body. The instrument is carried by means of a heavy duty leather strap which is slung across the yoke.
A telescope, used for lining up on the aiming target, is usually mounted at eyelevel on top of the optical barrel, however, it is unfortunately missing from the collection. A data output socket on the front panel provides range information in binary-coded-decimal form for direct input into a tape punch or other recording device.
For distance measurement, under favourable atmospheric conditions, 1 km can normally be measured using a triple prism reflector and 2 km distances require four triple prism reflectors. The standard deviation of a single determination of distance due to instrumental errors is 1.5 mm and the scale error due to atmospheric refractive index determination is usually less than ±2 ppm.
The instrument requires a 12 V D. C. power supply and the average power consumption of the
distance meter is 15 W

Total weight of instrument (without case) is 17.3 kg

Sharim
18-04-2008, 11:45
MICROWAVE DISTANCE METER
Tellurometer, South Africa
Model : CA 1000

Length 305mm, Width 145mm, Height 76mm
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This Tellurometer CA 1000 is an electronic microwave distance measuring system capable of measuring distances from approximately 50 metres to 30 kilometres.
The complete system comprises of two instruments, termed the "Master" (S/N 6250E) and the "Remote" (S/N 6249E) which are tripod mounted at each end of the line to be measured, and the slope distance is obtained from readings taken by the operator of the Master instrument only. The two images shown above are separate views of the "Remote" unit. Both units radiate an X-band microwave carrier tuneable between 10.10 and 10.45 GHz which is frequency modulated in the 19 to 25 MHz range. The Remote unit receives the transmission and re-transmits it to the Master, which measures the phase difference between the transmitted and received signals.
The size, weight and power consumption of the CA 1000 has been kept to a minimum due to the use of miniature, solid-state components in the design. An optional battery tray can be mounted integrally with the instrument, providing power for about 200 measurements between charges. The operating procedure of this instrument has been made as simple as possible since there is no necessity, except under abnormal circumstances, for any tuning to be carried out by the Remote operator, as automatic frequency tracking is employed.
An interesting and highly efficient feature of this Tellurometer is that it incorporates a duplex speech facility, allowing radio communication between the two instruments during measurements, and thus eliminating the necessity for "walkie-talkies" or field telephones. Also, there is no warm-up period required, since the quartz-oscillator inside the instrument is largely independent of the temperature, and therefore does not need to be thermostat controlled.
The unusually shaped, four-sided horn antenna attached to the end of the distance meter, on the opposite side of the control panel, is the standard range (10 km) microwave antenna, which is used to project the microwaves from one instrument to the other. There is also a long range (30 km) horn antenna available with the instrument.
The probable error of a single determination of distance is less than 1.5 centimetres, and the scale error due to atmospheric refractive index determination and crystal frequency drift is usually less than 5 ppm. The instrument requires a 12 Volt D. C. power supply and the current consumption of the distance meter is 0.38 Amps
Weight of instrument is 1.7 kg
Weight of battery tray with batteries is 2 kg

Sharim
18-04-2008, 11:48
MEDIUM-RANGE DISTANCE METER AGA, Sweden
Model : Geodimeter NASM-2A

Measuring unit (Length 880mm, Width 430mm, Height 350mm)
Optical unit (Length 870mm, Width 460mm, Height 530mm)

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This Geodimeter NASM-2A is an electronic-optical instrument for first-order geodetic distance measuring purposes, and is capable of measuring distances up to 50 kilometres. The instrument consists physically of two units, the 'measuring unit', housing the electronic equipment, and the 'optical unit', containing the light conductor and the two large spherical mirrors. With the two units combined, the instrument weighs approximately 100 kilograms.
The first image above shows the front control panel view of the assembled instrument consisting of the two units. The second image shows the side view of the instrument, and here the two units can be clearly differentiated with the measuring unit on the left side of the image and the optical unit on the right. The third image represents a rear view of the Geodimeter (opposite side of control panel) where the two large "transmitting" and "receiving" spherical mirrors are clearly visible.
The mirror lenses with their focusing devices are mounted on a beam attached to the front of the optical unit by means of ball links. This makes the position of the complete optical system fixed with regard to the measuring unit and hence adjustments are reduced to a minimum. In order to protect the aluminised glass surfaces of the mirrors they are covered with a very thin layer of silicium-monoxide.
The "electronic system" is mounted inside the measuring unit and contains the crystal oscillator with power amplifier for the light modulator, the photo multiplier with associated circuits for detecting and indicating the zero points and the power supply converting mains voltage to operating voltages for the electronic tubes. The purpose of the "optical system", which is housed inside the optical unit, is to project the modulated light on the reflector and to concentrate the reflected light on the phototube. The built-in light conductor offers a possibility of an internal calibration of the instrument which considerably increases its precision.
The primary power required to run the Geodimeter is about 140 Watts, which is supplied by a 220 Volt petrol generator. The instrumental accuracy is primarily limited by the accuracy of the modulation frequency, as this directly determines the unit length. Experience has shown that after a few months running-in-time, the frequency error will be smaller than one part per million (1 ppm).

There are two types of reflectors used with the Geodimeter, and these include the 'Plane Mirror Reflector' and the 'Spherical Mirror Reflector' (both are shown in the images on the left).
When using the Geodimeter, the observations can only be made in low light conditions (eg. at night)
Weight of Measuring Unit is 46 kg
Weight of Optical Unit is 48 k

Sharim
18-04-2008, 11:50
MEDIUM-RANGE DISTANCE METER MEDIUM-RANGE DISTANCE METER AGA, Sweden
Model : Geodimeter Model 6A

Length 360mm, Width 220mm, Height 530mm,
Telescope length 355mm

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This Geodimeter Model 6A is a portable and precise medium range electro-optical distance meter capable of measuring distances up to 10 kilometres in daylight and up to 25 kilometres in darkness. The instrument transmits a light beam (wavelength 550 nm), to which is applied a modulation of approximately 30 MHz (10 m), i.e. the light is intensity-modulated. The beam is directed onto a reflector at the distant station, from which it is reflected back to the instrument. The incoming light is received by a photo-multiplier (hence converted to an electrical signal) and the difference in phase between the transmitted and received modulations is measured.
The Geodimeter basically consists of the following components: (1) Light source, (2) Electro-optical shutter, (3) Modulator, (4) Transmitting and receiving optical systems, and (5) Photo-multiplier and phase comparison unit. The light source is, for night and short-range daylight work, an ordinary tungsten-filament lamp; and for daylight operation over longer lines, a mercury-vapour lamp.
The instrument has two optical systems, one for emitting the modulated light and one for receiving this light after reflection from the reflector at the other end of the line. There is also a searchlight and a coarse sight, which are used for easier location of the reflector. The searchlight is placed under the main tube and consists of a 2 Watt bulb, placed at the focal point of the projection lens. The course sight has a field of view and a magnification selected to facilitate the reflector location, and is equipped with a reticle which is illuminated when the panel light is on.
The magnification of the "receiver" optics, which is placed in a tube coaxial with the central tube, is 28x, with a focal length of 0.6 metres and an objective diameter of 50 mm. The "transmitter" optics, located on the outside of the receiver optics, has a focal length of 0.6 metres, and inner and outer objective diameters of 55 mm and 105 mm respectively.
The power source required for the instrument is a 12 V DC battery, and the distance meters average power consumption, which depends upon the operating conditions of the thermostats and lamps, is approximately 2.5 A. The precision using the standard method of measuring, with a measuring time of about 5 minutes, is less than 5mm + 1mm/km. However, when using the precise method of measuring, the readings could take as long as 30 minutes with mean square errors of less than 1mm + 1mm/km.

Weight of instrument is 16.3 kg
Weight of transport case is 8.5 kg

Sharim
18-04-2008, 11:54
SEMI-ELECTRONIC TACHEOMETER
TOPCON (Japan)
Model : GTS-2 10

(Without carrying handle and clip-on battery pack) telescope length 169mm, Height 380mm, Width 195mm

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This GTS-2 10 semi-electronic tacheometer is a combination of an electronic distance meter (EDM) and an optical scale-reading theodolite which has been consolidated into a single very compact and light-weight unit.
The axis of the infrared light beam and the optical line of sight are in coincidence, thus making possible accurate electronic distance measurements and angular measurements at one pointing of the instrument.
Distance measurement starts automatically, by simply pointing to the prism, with the return signal level optimised by an automatic level control system. The measured distance is displayed by light-emitting diodes (LED's) in distinct digital readout's, directly over the telescope eyepiece, while the measured angle is numbered in one degree divisions and simply read (optically) in the field of view of the optical micrometer, from left to right, to 10 seconds of arc.
In spite of it's compact size, the GTS-2 can measure distances up to 1,400 m with a single prism and 2,000 m with triple prisms, under ideal atmospheric conditions. The weight of the instrument is 6 kg (without carrying handle and clip-on battery pack).
The instrument features an accurate and fast responding automatic vertical circle indexing system. The range and setting accuracy of this system is ±5' and ±0.25", respectively. The sensitivity of the circular level is 10'/2mm and the sensitivity of the plate level is 30"/2mm. The distance measurement precision is in the order of about ±(5mm+5ppm). The measurement time in FINE mode for long distances could take as long as 7 s.

Weight of instrument and carrying case is 6.0 kg and 5.5 kg respectively
Erect telescope image
30x telescope magnification
The vertical and horizontal clamps and tangent screws are located close to each other on the same side for ideal convenience

Sharim
18-04-2008, 11:58
ELECTRONIC TACHEOMETER

Wild, Heerbrugg, Switzerland
Model : Wild TC1600

180 x 180 x 410 mm
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Electronic tacheometer (electronic theodolite with built-in electronic distance meter). Accuracy +/- 1.5" (H and V), +/-(3 mm + 2 ppm) for distance. The instrument features a slot for an electronic data recording card. It includes a bridge structure for a Wild GAK-1 gyroscope. The battery compartment is empty. Weight (with battery) and tribrach is 6.6 kg.
The instrument comes with two padded plastic transport cases , one for use with mounted gyro bridge (350 x 280 x 490 mm) and one for the original instrument (350 x 280 x 450 mm).
The instrument has a black gunsight and belongs to the second series of TC1600 manufactured, with an EDM unit length of 3 m.

Sharim
18-04-2008, 12:01
ELECTRONIC TACHEOMETER

Topcon, Japan
Model : ET-1

210 X 180 X 365 mm

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Electronic tacheometer (electronic theodolite with built-in electronic distance meter). Accuracy: horizontal directions +/- 2" , zenith angles +/- 3", slope distance +/-(5 mm + 5 ppm) . This instrument type was the first fully electronic tacheometer produce by Topcon. It includes a tribrach and a battery that sits on top of the standards. Measurements can be triggered without touching the instruments (use of light barriers). Weight with battery: 8.3 kg